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Revisiting The Raudive Diode  Rating:  Rating
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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:19 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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The Raudive Diode has been the source of discussion and frustration among researchers at this site for quite some time.

If you do an image search for the Raudive Diode you will see various schematics.

This is because the Raudive Diode is not a single circuit or device but rather, a short lived trial and error progression of designs intended to facilitate trans-dimensional communication.

For the purpose of this writing, I shall give a brief overview of the circumstances that lead to the use of the diode.

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:21 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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Genesis

In the beginning….


While Friedrich Jürgenson is officially credited with the 1959 discovery of the voice phenomenon we know today; there had been other individuals prior to 1959 who had attempted to communicate with “the dead” by mechanical means. Mr. Jürgenson retains this title because he was the first researcher to be recognized on an international basis.

During his research, Jürgenson realized that he could obtain louder and clearer EVPs by using the inter-frequency static from a radio that was tuned between two stations.

In the spring of 1960; following the advice of contacts from the other side, Jürgenson began using radio and settled on a Medium Wave frequency range of 1450-1600 kHz.

His optimal frequency; which produced a buzzing or wobbling sound came in at 1480~1485 kHz but varied slightly due to things like atmospheric conditions. To this day, this frequency is known to researchers as the Jürgenson Wave.

In 1964, psychologist and philosopher Dr. Konstantin Raudive became intrigued with the EVP phenomenon after reading Jürgenson’s book Rosterna fran Rymden (“Voices from space”)

Dr. Raudive contacted Jürgenson and arranged a meeting with him in April 1965 where the two men conducted microphone only recordings.

Even though Dr. Raudive could hear an occasional word, he considered these initial recordings somewhat lackluster in quality. This was probably due to Dr. Raudive not understanding the tone and timbre of EVPs. Nevertheless, Dr. Raudive’s interest continued and the two men began to collaborate.

On June 10, 1965 Jürgenson added radio static to their recording sessions. The injection of radio static made all the difference. Dr. Raudive heard voices calling “Friedrich! Friedrich!”; which was Jürgenson’s first name.

But the response that would forever change the landscape of things to come was a response directed to Dr. Raudive: “Do you know Margaret, Konstantin?”

Indeed, Margaret Petrautzki; a very close friend of Dr. Raudive had passed from a serious illness earlier that year on Feb. 10, 1965.

Now hooked, Dr. Raudive parted company with Jürgenson and began to conduct his own research into the EVP phenomenon.
From 1965 to 1968 Dr. Raudive began his own EVP sessions; recording in what he felt were controlled environments. Along the way he invited colleagues and scientists to participate.

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:22 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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In April 1968 physics professor Alex Schneider introduced the diode to Dr. Raudive.

Professor Schneider understood radio’s inherent potential of false EVPs creeping into a recording from station drift. With that in mind he proposed a simple circuit that could only pick up transmissions from the immediate area surrounding the device.

The circuit(s) Professor Schneider chose were based on the old “catwhisker” or crystal radio sets from the early days of radio.

Here is a pic from the appendix of the English version of Dr. Raudive’s book Breakthrough. The description and diagrams seen are the translated words and work of Professor Schneider.

As you read through the page you will notice that Diagram 1 – the most common diode schematic found on the internet was only used during the earliest experiments.

Also note Professor Schneider’s statement about elements within the circuit not being critical. I think this also applies to the circuit itself as long as a crystal radio circuit is being used.

You will notice that there is additional info that relates to circuits 2 & 3 in the form of Notes 8 & 9.

Attached Image (viewed 1069 times):

Diode.JPG

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:23 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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On page 354 we find:

Note 8 says: T had success with Circuit 3, but Circuit 2 is only a blueprint.

Note 9 says: T uses a commercial two-stage valve amplifier for shared aerials, to which the diode screen is coupled.

Attached Image (viewed 861 times):

IMG_1667.JPG

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:24 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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The publishing of the English version of Dr. Raudive’s 1968 book Unhörbares wird hörbar (“What is inaudible becomes audible”) was contingent upon Dr. Raudive conducting a series of experiments in London for the prospective publisher.

So………on Friday, December 12, 1969, Dr. Raudive arrived in Britain and brought along his equipment including a “diode box”.

On page x of the preface to Breakthrough the diode box is described as a small box twice the size of a match-box with 2 inches of wire sticking out of one end and another small wire at the other end which was to be placed into the input of a tape recorder.

Not understanding the diode’s function or wondering if this diode box was some type of elaborate hoax, one of the publishers arranged for the diode to be inspected by David Stanley; an electrical engineer.

The following day, Mr. Stanley inspected the diode box and within seconds proclaimed the diode and circuit was ordinary and held no particular value. He offered to build another diode box within the hour for the publisher to use during their experiments later that evening.

On page xx of the preface to Breakthrough we find David Stanley’s schematic of Dr. Raudive’s diode circuit as it appeared on December 13, 1969.

Even though there are no values listed for parts, the schematic clearly shows the diode circuit had evolved from Diagram 1 (shown above) to one which included a double coil and capacitor.

Attached Image (viewed 874 times):

IMG_1669.JPG

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:25 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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This circuit worked well enough for the December 13, 1969 experiments that the next morning found Dr. Raudive signing a contract for the publishing of an English language version of his book.

The book Breakthrough placed EVP’s into the English speaking public arena and allowed Dr. Raudive to emerge as the preeminent motivator of men in the field of Electronic Voice Phenomena.

Inasmuch as the diode recording concept seemed to work well in recording anomalous voices, the process lacked the ability for the experimenter to inject questions into the recording.

So once again; the diode evolved with Professor Schneider designing another circuit which allowed the input of a microphone.

Here is that circuit:

Apparently, the use of the 1nF capacitor between the antenna and the diode is to help cut down on mains hum voltage. This circuit also recommends using a grounding wire from the metal enclosure to a grounding source.

While you may still find an AA116 diode somewhere online, an appropriate equivalent would be a 1N60 diode.

Attached Image (viewed 1046 times):

DIODE-2.jpg

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:26 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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If you desire to hear examples of the EVP’s obtained by the Konstantin Raudive; there are several options available to you.


You can purchase the original flex-disc record that came with the Breakthrough book directly from the publisher. Or, you can get the record for free if you purchase the Breakthrough book. The publisher’s site is here:

http://www.colinsmythe.co.uk/



An “enhanced” version of the flex-disc record is available through Amazon:

http://www.amazon.com/An-Introduction-EVP-Ghost-Orchid/dp/B0000274TT/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1365608997&sr=8-2&keywords=An+Introduction+to+EVP

Scroll down to #75 & 76 and you will see that for less than $2 you can buy Side A & B of the Breakthrough recordings as an mp3 download.



If you do a youtube search for Konstantin Raudive Breakthrough you can find the flex-disc recording.



If you wish to listen to the EVP’s offered in Raudive’s original German version of Breakthrough you can go here:

http://www.rodiehr.de/a_30_raudive_unhoerbares_schallpl_einfuehrung.htm

The recordings are at the bottom of the page.

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:27 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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As we have seen, the Raudive diode is nothing more than a crystal radio with a very short antenna.

If you do an online search for crystal radio kit or crystal radio schematics, you will find many kits, plans and parts to choose from in all price ranges.

If you want to experiment in the shortwave band, a search for shortwave crystal radio will point you in the right direction.

AND……you can get FM from a crystal set. Search for FM crystal set and look at the website by a guy named Solomon. He has a couple of very attractive designs.


If you do experiment with any of the crystal set designs, keep in mind that you cannot use regular headphones or earbuds to listen to the audio output. You will need high-impedance headphones or piezo earpieces.

Low impedance inputs like headphones and earbuds (8 ~ 16 ohms) require more current which causes more power loss in the diode; which in turn mean less signal that gets turned into sound.

Using a digital recorder or computer to record Raudive diode circuits or crystal sets should be fine because of the higher impedance of these inputs.

For example; the microphone jack for my Olympus vn3200pc recorder has input impedance of 2K ohms. My Olympus DS-40 has a microphone impedance of 680 ohms. The microphone input on one of my soundcards is >4K ohms.

To be sure…please consult your equipment specifications.

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 09:35 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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Thank you for taking the time to read this.

On a sad note...I contacted the publisher of the Breakthrough book and asked him if he still had the duplicate diode that Mr. Stanley had made for the 1969 experiment.

He wrote back that over the years the diode had been cannibalized by various people he had lent it out to.

Here is a pic of all that is left of the duplicate diode:
I guess people thought the parts were somehow special enough to take as souvenirs. :confused:

Attached Image (viewed 870 times):

IMG_0518.JPG

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 03:54 PM
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jon
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An excellent and instructive overview. Many thanks!

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 Posted: Apr 10th, 2013 05:12 PM
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lance
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Thanks for posting this Ron... Take care, Lance



____________________
https://lanceitc.wordpress.com
Please visit.
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 Posted: Apr 12th, 2013 01:56 PM
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Jan
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I remember diagram 1 from post #3 from Breakthrough and I made it in a screened Sellotape tin in 1975 using an OA81 germanium diode and about 12 inches of wire as the antenna.

When I plugged it into my Philips cassette recorder it didn't do anything except weakly pick up the local AM station, which looking back now is what I'd expect since it is just a very insensitive untuned crystal set as stated by Ron.

Has anyone ever used this circuit or one of its variants to pick up anything other than AM stations? Is there even the vaguest theories as to how it might work to generate EVPs?

Jan

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 Posted: Apr 14th, 2013 09:16 AM
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EVPDave
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Jan wrote: I remember diagram 1 from post #3 from Breakthrough and I made it in a screened Sellotape tin in 1975 using an OA81 germanium diode and about 12 inches of wire as the antenna.

When I plugged it into my Philips cassette recorder it didn't do anything except weakly pick up the local AM station, which looking back now is what I'd expect since it is just a very insensitive untuned crystal set as stated by Ron.

Has anyone ever used this circuit or one of its variants to pick up anything other than AM stations? Is there even the vaguest theories as to how it might work to generate EVPs?

Jan
With cautious use the device (in my opinion) should still be useful for research. It may vary greatly from location to location depending on the distance from local radio transmitters, mainly AM radio broadcast towers.
The blend of three or four radio station signals at the same level as the recorder noise floor should be beneficial in a transform process EVP. One very strong local signal might render the device unusable and this should be kept in mind. A faraday shield, or changing the antenna wire length might help with the initial level setting. Keep in mind the old tape recorders had a manual level adjustment on the microphone input circuit, so the levels would be easier to match the noise floor than with a modern digital recorder.

Dave

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You have chosen to ignore Rachel EVP Voices. click Here to view this post

 Posted: Apr 19th, 2013 08:01 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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Rachel EVP Voices wrote:
Hi all

I'd be interested to hear your ideas on this question; historically ITC devices that have brought great results for one researcher but often fail to work at the same level of success for anyone else - why do think this is?

Best wishes,

Rachel




That is a very good question.

Despite it's short lifespan of approx. 1 1/2 years, the Diode was mildly successful for most people who tried it at that point in time.

While the diode was not a stock item one could purchase; it's construction was easy enough for the average enthusiast to build.

Richard Sheargold wrote a booklet in 1973 that included a couple of diode schematics for readers to try.


Other devices like Theodore Rudolph's Goniometer and Franz Seidl's Psychophone were complex, proprietary and out of the reach of the average experimenter.

If given the option of microphone recording, diode recording or inter-frequency recording, I think most people would opt for microphone and inter-frequency because most folks had a radio in their homes and therefore the start-up costs would be minimal.

That being said...there is a possibility that some sort of synchronicity was in play.

The folks on the other side have been talking to us since the dawn of recording devices, I suppose it's possible that since Jürgenson and Raudive were basically the first to listen for them, the other side made more of a concerted effort to be heard.


Jumping forward, Frank Sumption's Radio Sweep invention ushered in a new path of ITC research. Steve Hultay's simple modification of certain portable radios placed radio sweep at a level where anyone could experiment with trans-dimensional communication.

The process worked so well that sophisticated radio sweep devices are available for purchase at reasonable costs and are in use today by thousands of people.



Regards,
Ron

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 Posted: Jan 16th, 2018 04:41 PM
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Tobias Claren
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Hi.

Is there actuall THE best Layout?

Number 3 with "aerial" antenna? What is the best Antenna? Frequency?
Actuall, there ready made offers with a simple coin-like copper plate as "antenna". Is this design OK, or bad quality?
Number 2 looks more complex, but more ineffective?
Or from Post #6? But there is a input for a regular sound wave microphone.
I think, a discrete channel, only with em input is better (proof, that this sounds are not air vibration sound). Or?

And my idea... would it possible, to build a "Raudive Diode" in a old/cheap XLR-Microphone hull?
This would very comfortable to hold in the hand, hold by regular microphone stand, and connect it over XLR with a field recorder like Fostex FR-2LE.
But a "Dynamic Microphone" has a metal basket cage above. A faraday cage. Also the grip. Is this a problem? Or is this mesh cage without compromises useable as antenna?
For example, here is a image of a classical microphone: https://www.bhphotovideo.com/images/images500x500/Behringer_Behringer_XM8500_15_XLR_Cable_Foam_890290.jpg

Last edited on Jan 16th, 2018 07:06 PM by Tobias Claren

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 Posted: Jan 16th, 2018 07:21 PM
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ArizonaEvp
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The short answer is yes,  you can use a dynamic mic by removing the microphone and replacing it with a diode.  Peeps have done this with old crappy radio shack mics.

What I don't know about is the phantom voltage used with XLR's.  I wouldn't worry about the metal mesh.  Faraday cage would help eliminate cross modulation from radio frequencies.  I would imagine you would want to use a good quality shielded cable for the same reason.

Raudive diode circuits are quite varied from the complex to the incredibly simple.

There are some inexpensive versions available on ebay:


https://www.ebay.com/sch/?_nkw=raudive%20diode


The ones coming from Arizona are made by Matt Nigbur.

Here is a demo video of his diode:


https://youtu.be/MIRt4QnZyx0


If you want a basic basic basic diode setup for a digital recorder, all you need is a diode and microphone jack.  (see pic)






Attached Image (viewed 73 times):

diode_jack.jpg

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 Posted: Jan 16th, 2018 09:28 PM
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Tobias Claren
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"Dynamic" mics do not have 48V phantom power.
Only condenser mics have phantom power.
But both are professional mics with XLR socket under it. The same XLR is on my digital recorder:
http://www.chitarra-online.com/images/recorders/fostex-FR-2LE-inputs.jpg
Yes, this is a combi socket. XLR with big mono phone plug (big, mono) in center. But I have and use XLR cable. I think, XLR cables are better shielded as phone jack cables.
This is my recorder: https://www.bhphotovideo.com/images/images500x500/Behringer_Behringer_XM8500_15_XLR_Cable_Foam_890290.jpg
This i not a "handheld", this is for "wearing" with a shoulder strap.

Has Konstantin Raudive used supply voltage?!?
There are circuits with "22pf" or "2000pf" capacitors (# 2 and # 3 in photo from book). These need supply voltage, "phantom power", or? 48V?

Is a circuit with the use of phantom bower better than one without?


The cheapest dynamic mic with XLR I found, as example:
https://www.ebay.com/itm/401267892418
(can you find a cheaper mic?!)

And for example, the cheapest condenser mic:
http://www.ebay.com/itm/182383064421


I am not searching for ready made Raudive-Diodes.
Simple versions on ebay for expensive ~$50 o_o.
"A good business", maybe I should build more fpr selling ;-) .
And a little bit soldering is not the problem.
Therefore, the question for the best working circuit.


But only replacing the microphone capsule? Hmmm, very simple.
Does not a coil belong in the circuit?
On YouTube there is a USB mic with diode etc. inside, and a litle wire (as Antenne) from inside out (!) on the top of the basket...
( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NX4ov6ggMLA at 59s)

Last edited on Jan 16th, 2018 10:14 PM by Tobias Claren

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 Posted: Jan 17th, 2018 11:45 PM
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ArizonaEvp
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To my knowledge,  Raudive didn't use a diode device that required supply voltage.

In the picture you refer to,  circuit was only a blueprint and may not have come to fruition.  It also goes on to say that someone refereed to as  "T"  was the person who experimented with circuit design #3.

As the article goes on to say,  the diode radio system didn't last very long as an experimental tool and fell by the wayside in favor of the inter-frequency based Goniometer designed for Dr. Raudive by electronics engineer Theodore Rudolph.




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goin.jpg

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 Posted: Jan 17th, 2018 11:54 PM
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ArizonaEvp
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Regarding if one circuit design is better than another,  my opinion is no.  If the diode method had been wildly successful,  it would still be around today.

As far as a coil / choke,  I guess it all depends on the circuit and frequency range you want to target.

You can get Short Wave, FM & AM depending on coil used.

Raudive's diode was just a crystal radio,  nothing more, nothing less. 

Personally,  I think the formation of responses occurred within the white noise generated by the reel to reel amplifier.

There was also some misinterpretation of weak radio signals as EVP.  The most famous of these was the section of tape Raudive presented that turned out to be a segment of a Radio Luxembourg program.

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 Posted: Jan 18th, 2018 12:22 AM
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Tobias Claren
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Did you mean the circuit on post 6, or the third circuit from the book picture?

There a many people they build and use the "Raudive Diode", and some sell this cheap devices for 50 dollars 0_o, but there are better technologies?
Why? Is this "inter-frequency based Goniometer" (on this photo in this transparent box?) better?
Is this actually the most effective technology? Is this a "active" technology?
Because, it seems the "psychophone" spend energy to the entities for builduing their words with EM energy.
Their are german sentences "blitz abdreh" in a ITC article.
"blitz" ("Lightning") means, that the field strength is to strong.
And "abdreh" (correct "abdrehen") is a imperative for "turn off".
Because "Blitz wie Beil im Hirn" means "Lightning like ax in the brain".


But this "Geniometer" is very complex and expensive to build?
Is this actually the best technology?
Or what is actually the BEST known technology (is there an other thread?)?

Last edited on Jan 18th, 2018 12:44 AM by Tobias Claren

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 Posted: Jan 22nd, 2018 02:04 AM
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ArizonaEvp
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Tobias Claren wrote: Did you mean the circuit on post 6, or the third circuit from the book picture?

There a many people they build and use the "Raudive Diode", and some sell this cheap devices for 50 dollars 0_o, but there are better technologies?
Why? Is this "inter-frequency based Goniometer" (on this photo in this transparent box?) better?
Is this actually the most effective technology? Is this a "active" technology?
Because, it seems the "psychophone" spend energy to the entities for builduing their words with EM energy.
Their are german sentences "blitz abdreh" in a ITC article.
"blitz" ("Lightning") means, that the field strength is to strong.
And "abdreh" (correct "abdrehen") is a imperative for "turn off".
Because "Blitz wie Beil im Hirn" means "Lightning like ax in the brain".


But this "Geniometer" is very complex and expensive to build?
Is this actually the best technology?
Or what is actually the BEST known technology (is there an other thread?)?



Your response brings up the basic question that a lot of folks want to know:

"What works best"


The short answer is Nothing Works Best.  If one process worked the best you would have already heard about it.  It would be all over the news, newspapers,  etc.

Devices like the Raudive Diode,  Goniometer,  Psychophone and the rest came about back in the 1970's.  They've been tried over and over again and all of them faded away over time.

While traditional EVP efforts remain till this day,  the method most used by researchers was inter-frequency.

This is nothing more that tuning a radio to the white noise between stations.  Various
frequencies were used depending on the work of previous researchers and availability of radio reception in your local area.

After about the year 2000,  radio sweep slowly took over the field.  This method is also called Ghost Boxes, spirit Boxes, Radio Sweep and occasionally Broken Radios. 

These radios are modified to continuously sweep through the particular radio band (AM / FM) without really stopping long enough on any one channel before continuing the sweep.

While these devices remain popular,  their design is radio based and will never pass a Cage Match.

What this means is,  to make the scientific claim that ghost boxes work,  one must attempt to scientifically prove that the output is not being influenced by the cross modulations of radio signals.

Placing a ghost box into a Faraday cage reduced the device to a very expensive white noise generator.

Other resources for the experimenter involve apps for smart phones and computers.  These products have produced differing levels of success depending on the app.

Some people have experimented with what is called live streaming of tones and other variants.  This community is probably the smallest of research tools currently available.

People still do traditional EVP research and use methods that range from recording in total silence to the use of background textures like colored noise to gibberish to foreign language audio to reversed audio.


I guess the bottom line of which technology to use largely depends on one's goals and level of instant gratification.

People who do traditional evp are usually into it for the long haul while folks who employ radio sweep and apps are more apt to want a less rigorous method for possible communication.


Of course,  this is jut one person's opinion so it should be taken with a grain of salt.

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 Posted: Feb 3rd, 2018 06:28 PM
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EdWord
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Hello, thank you for a very informative thread and a thank you to all the thread contributors too.

I think we are all searching for the ultimate communication configuration and many different idas have been put forward ranging from the very simplistic to highly complex.

However my mind is always drawn the continued accomplishments of Mr Bacci, who appears to use very basic equipment with excellent results.

I say appears to use, because I do see an array of equipment around his receiver that is covered, such as oscilloscopes etc but I presume that this is for research and testing purposes.

Yet when the Bacci setup is functioning, I can only her the output of his actual radio. I don't hear any other forms of cross modulation, impulse signals, Frequency modulators etc.

Would you say tha Bacci is just an exception to the rule?

In the past, Raudive and others have given advice regarding changes to set ups in order to produce the best results, some communications have even suggested that we need to completely overhaul our devices if we wish to progress further in comms.

I wonder why, despite an apparent drop in reported contacts since the 90's, when particular groups split up for various reasons, that new and up to date suggestions haven't been received.

I have no doubt that various Governments and other bodies have undertaken their own research into this area and I have no reason to think that communications have slowed or stopped for them. I do think that these agencies would no doubt employ the brightest minds with unlimited budgets in order to obtain the highest standard of communication.

Sadly, most of us do not have access to such resources and I am in no doubt, that our reasons for making contact are vastly different to those of the aforementioned.

Perhaps for the time, the simplest methods may be the best.

I strongly believe that if they want to contact us they will, but if they do not want to, no amount of expensive or complicated equipment will matter.

Regards to all and have the best day possible.

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ITC Bridge > Instrumental Transcommunication (ITC) > Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) > Revisiting The Raudive Diode Top




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